How do you get pregnant woman
People talk about obvious ones — cravings, fatigue, nausea, body shape — but there are also situations like negotiating new working arrangements and reworking your finances that can make this a difficult time. As well as physical, financial and social changes, many women experience emotional changes during pregnancy too. Mixed emotions are a normal and necessary part of preparing to become a parent. Like unexpected physical health complications for example, high blood pressure , mental health problems can affect any woman during pregnancy. Talking about your feelings can be the first step towards feeling better. It can be helpful for both expectant mums and dads to learn about ways to help themselves and others through this time of change.
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Female fertility animationContent:
- Taking Care of You and Your Baby While You’re Pregnant
- Pregnant and worried about the new coronavirus?
- Coronavirus (COVID-19), Pregnancy, and Breastfeeding: A Message for Patients
- We value your feedback
- 10 Things That Might Surprise You About Being Pregnant
- Trying to Conceive: 10 Tips for Women
- If You Are Pregnant, Breastfeeding, or Caring for Young Children
- Coronavirus (COVID-19): Pregnancy FAQs
Taking Care of You and Your Baby While You’re Pregnant
Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, each lasting for approximately 3 months. Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Associated terms for pregnancy are gravid and parous. Gravidus and gravid come from the Latin word meaning "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida.
Similarly, the term parity is used for the number of times that a female carries a pregnancy to a viable stage. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida.
A woman who is or has been only pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida ,  and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous. In the case of a multiple birth the gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous.
A pregnancy is considered term at 37 weeks of gestation. It is preterm if less than 37 weeks and postterm at or beyond 42 weeks of gestation. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended further division with early term 37 weeks up to 39 weeks, full term 39 weeks up to 41 weeks, and late term 41 weeks up to 42 weeks. Preterm and postterm are defined above, whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy.
The usual symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a health-threat to the mother or baby. However, pregnancy complications can cause other more severe symptoms, such as those associated with anemia. The chronology of pregnancy is, unless otherwise specified, generally given as gestational age , where the starting point is the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period LMP , or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
Sometimes, timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists , the main methods to calculate gestational age are: . Due date estimation basically follows two steps:. Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of days at childbirth.
The rule estimates the expected date of delivery EDD by adding a year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age. Alternatively there are mobile apps , which essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year , while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.
Furthermore, actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date. A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound , and 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period. Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cell , the female gamete.
Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg. The fusion of female and male gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.
Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus.
This is about a week to ten days after fertilization. The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries , unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote , then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite.
Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems.
The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply.
The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. After about ten weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known as a fetus. At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation.
The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy. Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation. It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought. Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks, and begin to multiply quickly at week 28 until 3 to 4 months after birth. Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement, known as quickening , can be felt.
This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 20th to 21st week, or by the 19th week if the woman has been pregnant before. It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later. During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes. During pregnancy, a woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including behavioral , cardiovascular , hematologic , metabolic , renal , and respiratory changes.
Increases in blood sugar , breathing , and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and estrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle. A full-term pregnancy at an early age reduces the risk of breast , ovarian and endometrial cancer and the risk declines further with each additional full-term pregnancy.
The fetus is genetically different from its mother, and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft. Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. During the second trimester, most women feel more energized, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away.
The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy. Final weight gain takes place during the third trimester, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy.
The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth. During the second trimester, the woman's abdomen would have been upright, whereas in the third trimester it will drop down low.
The fetus moves regularly, and is felt by the woman. Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, "popping" out, due to the expanding abdomen. Head engagement , where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentation , relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing.
It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum. It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow.
For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat, which is relieved by lying on the left side. Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born.
A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and dilation. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations. Most births are successful vaginal births, but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section. During the time immediately after birth, both the mother and the baby are hormonally cued to bond, the mother through the release of oxytocin , a hormone also released during breastfeeding.
Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the mother and baby. A review done by the World Health Organization found that skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother—infant interaction, and helps mothers to breastfeed successfully. They recommend that neonates be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth, the period that they tend to be more alert than in the following hours of early life.
In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term". Sometimes if a woman's water breaks or she has contractions before 39 weeks, birth is unavoidable. Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range. Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm. The postnatal period, also referred to as the puerperium , begins immediately after delivery and extends for about six weeks.
The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the woman herself, or by using pregnancy tests. However, an important condition with serious health implications that is quite common is the denial of pregnancy by the pregnant woman.
About one in denials will last until around the 20th week of pregnancy. The proportion of cases of denial, persisting until delivery is about 1 in This condition is known as a false pregnancy.
Most pregnant women experience a number of symptoms,  which can signify pregnancy. A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests ,  which detect hormones generated by the newly formed placenta , serving as biomarkers of pregnancy.
Obstetric ultrasonography can detect fetal abnormalities , detect multiple pregnancies , and improve gestational dating at 24 weeks. Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country. The aim of good prenatal care is prevention, early identification, and treatment of any medical complications.
Pregnant and worried about the new coronavirus?
This page will be updated as ACOG learns new information for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Please note that while this is a page for patients, this page is not meant to give specific medical advice and is for informational reference only. Medical advice should be provided by your doctor or other health care professional. Ob-gyns: Please refer to acog.
Advice from the UK government is rapidly changing as more is learned about the virus. We are updating this information as new guidance becomes available. We understand that many of you will be very worried and have lots of questions. We will do our best to support you through these difficult times.
Coronavirus (COVID-19), Pregnancy, and Breastfeeding: A Message for Patients
COVID, the disease caused by a new coronavirus, has rapidly spread globally and is now a pandemic, according to the World Health Organization. Many of my pregnant patients have expressed concerns, both for themselves and their babies, about the impact of COVID on their health. Together, we reviewed the extremely limited data available to provide evidence-based responses below. Please remember, recommendations and guidelines will continue to change as we learn more about this illness. What should I do if I have a fever or cough? If I become sick, what is the risk of passing the virus on to my fetus or newborn? Should I continue to have prenatal visits? I am worried that doctors, even obstetricians, will be diverted in an emergency setting and may not be available when I am delivering.
We value your feedback
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Hector Chapa does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. That question, sent to me by a colleague who is both a registered nurse and an expectant mother, stopped me in my tracks. Her email reminded me of the uncertainty expectant mothers now face as health risks and the health care system around them change amid this coronavirus pandemic. While knowledge about the new coronavirus disease, COVID, is rapidly evolving and there are still many unknowns, medical groups and studies are starting to provide advice and answers to questions many expecting families are asking.
10 Things That Might Surprise You About Being Pregnant
During pregnancy, exercise can help you stay in shape and prepare for labor and delivery. Here's the lowdown on pregnancy and exercise, from getting started to staying motivated. Pregnancy might seem like the perfect time to sit back and relax. You likely feel more tired than usual, and your back might ache from carrying extra weight.
This is called prenatal care. Your doctor will start by reviewing your medical history. He or she also will want to know about your symptoms. During this first appointment, urine and blood samples will be taken. These will also be taken again on later visits.
Trying to Conceive: 10 Tips for Women
Pregnancy info is everywhere. Many pregnant women feel the nesting instinct, a powerful urge to prepare their home for the baby by cleaning and decorating. As your due date draws closer, you may find yourself cleaning cupboards or washing walls — things you never would have imagined doing in your ninth month of pregnancy! But be careful not to overdo it. In the first trimester , tiredness and morning sickness can make many women feel worn out and mentally fuzzy.
Here are some answers to questions about coronavirus and pregnancy. Experts don't know if pregnant women are more likely to get coronavirus than other people. But because of the changes women go through during pregnancy , they may be more likely to get some infections.
If You Are Pregnant, Breastfeeding, or Caring for Young Children
Although there are currently no data showing that COVID affects pregnant people differently than others, we do know that pregnant people are at greater risk of getting sick from other respiratory viruses than people who are not pregnant. Sometimes, this causes adverse outcomes for the mother or child. Therefore, if you are pregnant, be mindful about reducing your risk of getting sick. You can also teach your children everyday steps such as proper handwashing to stay healthy:.
Coronavirus (COVID-19): Pregnancy FAQs